Friday, May 22, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay - 1206 Words

This paper focuses on women who are survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and today struggle with a complex set of symptoms known as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). For pastors who intend to provide help, an integrated multidimensional treatment plan flows from a thorough assessment and accurate diagnosis. Discussed herein are three treatment options including individual, group and cognitive processing therapy and the integration of a Christian perspective regarding symptom mitigation to assist in gaining a better understanding of redemptive care. Ashley is 60 years old. She is the middle child of three sisters. Ashley reported that when she was growing up, her father abused her. She was also abused by her sister in the way she was setting up situations for Ashley to be raped or beaten. Ashley has great feelings of betrayal toward her father, mother, and sister. Her mother confessed to Ashely that she caught her husband when he was sexually molesting her oldest daughter. Ashley is angry that her mother did not stop the abuse, and she did not protect her and her sister. Ultimately, Ashley is angry that her mother was dependent on her father, and she did not even consider separating from him. Ashley reported feelings of entrapment, depression, anxiety, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, flashbacks and helplessness and powerlessness as a child that led her to become preoccupied with remaining in control of situations as an adult. (Karakurt Silver, 2014, p. 83)Show MoreRelatedPost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )990 Words   |  4 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common anxiety disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts and images of the traumatic event, and avoidance of things that can call the traumatic event into mind (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Nock, 2014). About 7 percent of Americans suffer from PTSD. Family members of victims can also develop PTSD and it can occur in people of any age. The diagnosis for PTSD requires one or more symptoms to beRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1471 Words   |  6 PagesRunning head: POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Student’s Name Course Title School Name April 12, 2017 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder that many people are facing every day, and it appears to become more prevalent. This disorder is mainly caused by going through or experiencing a traumatic event, and its risk of may be increased by issuesRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1401 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the Mayo-Clinic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, commonly known as PTSD is defined as â€Å"Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event† (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). Post Traumatic Stress disorder can prevent one from living a normal, healthy life. In 2014, Chris Kyle playedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1198 Words   |  5 Pages Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a mental illness that is triggered by witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. â€Å"PTSD was first brought to public attention in relation to war veterans, but it can result from a variety of traumatic incidents, such as mugging, rape, torture, being kidnapped or held captive, child abuse, car accidents, train wrecks, plane crashes, bombings, or natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes(NIMH,2015).† PTSD is recognized as a psychobiological mentalRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1423 Words   |  6 Pages Mental diseases and disorders have been around since humans have been inhabiting earth. The field of science tasked with diagnosing and treating these disorders is something that is always evolving. One of the most prevalent disorders in our society but has only recently been acknowledged is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Proper and professional diagnosis and definitions of PTSD was first introduced by the American Psychiatric Association(APA) in the third edition of the Diagnostic andRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1162 Words   |  5 PagesSocial Identity, Groups, and PTSD In 1980, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD,) was officially categorized as a mental disorder even though after three decades it is still seen as controversial. The controversy is mainly founded around the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) and politics. The author believes that a group level analysis will assist in understanding the contradictory positions in the debate of whether or not PTSD is a true disorder. The literature regarding this topicRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1550 Words   |  7 PagesPost Traumatic Stress Disorder â€Å"PTSD is a disorder that develops in certain people who have experienced a shocking, traumatic, or dangerous event† (National Institute of Mental Health). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has always existed, PTSD was once considered a psychological condition of combat veterans who were â€Å"shocked† by and unable to face their experiences on the battlefield. Much of the general public and many mental health professionals doubted whether PTSD was a true disorder (NIMH)Read MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )944 Words   |  4 Pageswith Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Stats). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental disorder common found in veterans who came back from war. We can express our appreciation to our veterans by creating more support programs, help them go back to what they enjoy the most, and let them know we view them as a human not a disgrace. According to the National Care of PTSD, a government created program, published an article and provides the basic definition and common symptoms of PTSD. Post-traumaticRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1780 Words   |  8 Pagesmental illnesses. One such illness is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness that affects a person’s sympathetic nervous system response. A more common name for this response is the fight or flight response. In a person not affected by post-traumatic stress disorder this response activates only in times of great stress or life threatening situations. â€Å"If the fight or flight is successful, the traumatic stress will usually be released or dissipatedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1444 Words   |  6 PagesYim – Human Stress 2 December 2014 PTSD in War Veterans Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that is fairly common with individuals that have experienced trauma, especially war veterans. One in five war veterans that have done service in the Iraq or Afghanistan war are diagnosed with PTSD. My group decided to focus on PTSD in war veterans because it is still a controversial part of stressful circumstances that needs further discussion. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD amongst war

Friday, May 8, 2020

Critique of Transformational Leadership - 1754 Words

PAPER: Journal Article | Arnold, K.A. and Loughlin, C. (2010) Individually considerate transformational leadership behavior and self sacrifice. Leadership amp; Organization Development Journal, 31(8) pp.670-686 | UNDERSTANDING OF THIS PAPER AIM/PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER | The aim/purpose of this paper is:a) To investigate how and to which extent leaders engage in individually considerate transformational leadership behavior with focus on the developmental, supportive and self sacrificial aspects of this behavior. b) To investigate the degree of Developmental versus Supportive aspects of Individual Consideration as a major component of transformational leadership style. | METHODS USED IN THE RESEARCH Research Methodology used: |†¦show more content†¦* No form of real life scenario examples where provided in the literature review to give the readers a greater insight of what transformational leadership involves. * Individual consideration has been characterised as behavior that allows transformation to occur in this article. This has shown a dysfunction as it takes more than consideration but also involves influence and stimulation as seen in Mullins (2005). * Key authors who have contributed in one form of the order to this field of knowledge has been referred to however the one man who first brought about the Knowledge of transformational leadership James Burns (1978) wasn’t referred to. * The word Leaders was used interchangeably with managers in some instances. To the researchers do both terms mean the same? In actual fact leaders are different from managers. * Semi structured interviews used to gather data. This approach used is rather a subjective one because it is based on how the leaders understands issues that is what the leaders or key informants view as important in explaining. Secondly there is a tendency for the leaders to digress away from what is expected of them. * The research also display another form of subjectivity as the use of the semi structured approach depends on the skills of the interviewer in conducting theShow MoreRelatedCritique of Transformational Transactional Leadership1806 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿Critique of Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership â€Å"Leadership without perspective and point of view isn’t leadership-and of course it must be your own perspective, your own point of view. You cannot borrow a point of view any more than you can borrow someone else’s eyes. It must be authentic, and if it is, it will be original, because you are original†. (Bennis, 1992, p.122) Introduction This paper assesses two popular leadership theories: Transformational Leadership TransactionalRead MoreCharacteristics Of A Transformational Leadership963 Words   |  4 PagesCharacteristics of Good Leadership Leadership comes in many facets. It is important to pick the right leadership depending on the situation. In this paper the key leadership that will be discussed is transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is a leadership style that has been adopted by a lot of individuals in the 21st Century. It is also a leadership style that leaders in the military have utilized to effectively train new Soldiers. Throughout this paper I will speak about theRead MoreManagers Emotional Intelligence Effect On Followers Performance1577 Words   |  7 Pagesemotional intelligence. There is too much over lap in the concepts brought by the models (Cherniss et al., 2006; Locke, 2005). They state that this makes it hard to understand what emotional intelligence is (Cherniss et al., 2006). Locke (2005), critiques the definition of emotional intelligence given by Mayer and Salovey, stating that emotional intelligence means â€Å"the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information† (p. 425).Read MoreThe Effects Of Leadership Characteristics On Pediatric Registered Nurses Job Satisfaction844 Words   |  4 PagesResearch Critique: Effects of Leadership Characteristics on Pediatric Registered Nurses’ Job Satisfaction Nursing job satisfaction continues to rank high as an area of concern for Nurse Executives. Dissatisfied nurses can lead to a decreased ability to recruit nurses and increased turnover (Ruggiero, 2005), leading to lower patient satisfaction. The costs of nursing turnover has been hard to measure and varies from study to study (Li Jones, 2013), however Brewer, et al. (2011) estimates $856Read MoreThe Core Elements Of Transformational Leadership1282 Words   |  6 Pages2 The core elements of transformational leadership Now that we’ve explored the concepts and contexts around transformational leadership, we can turn our attention to the core elements of the model. The key elements include Bass’ four transformational components and the test he developed for analysing your leadership style. Bass’ four components The core idea of Bass’ transformational theory focused on the ways a leader can change the organisational structures around him or her and to ensure theRead MoreTransformational Leadership And Guest Satisfaction Ratings Within The Hospitality Industry1101 Words   |  5 Pagessubject matter. Leadership in any industry has been an object of study for centuries. As the name implies, transformational leadership is a leadership style in which the leader attempts to better understand the goals of the followers and inspires a transformation geared towards achieving those goals. In the book Leadership: Theory and Practice, Northouse explains that transformational leadership is â€Å"An encompassing approach, [that] can be used to describe a wide range of leadership, from very specificRead MoreInfluence Of Transformational Leadership And Job Burnout On Child Protective Services Essay1029 Words   |  5 PagesFortunato, V. J. (2016). The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Job Burnout on Child Protective Services Case Managers Commitment and Intent to Quit. Journal Of Social Service Research, 42(3), 372-385. doi 10.1080/01488376.2015.1101047 Introduction According to Rittschof and Fortunato (2016), there has been little research conducted about the correlation between child protective service worker burnout rates and supportive supervisors and leadership personnel. The objective of this quantitativeRead MoreMalaysian Leadership Style and Employees Organizational Commitment 953 Words   |  4 PagesBibliographical Entry Lo, M.C., Ramayah, T., and Min, H.W., (2009). Leadership styles and organizational commitment: a test on Malaysia manufacturing industry. African Journal of Marketing Management, 1 (6), 133-139. Problem In Malaysia it was a common complaint that employees were no more loyal as they used to be in the passed. Employees would tend to leave their companies for slightly better pay due to low commitment. Hence, the biggest challenge for Malaysian organizations was to provoke aRead MoreThe Timeless Quality of the Foundations of Excellent Leadership1177 Words   |  5 PagesFoundations of Excellent Leadership Are Timeless Introduction It is often said that a manager is what one does and leader is who one is. This is especially the case during times of turbulent economic, social and political change. In the debate of whether the effectiveness of a leaders communication skills is dependent on their age or generation, one must take into account one of the most critical skills in any leaders skill set, and that is emotional intelligence (EI) (Avolio, Yammarino, 2002)Read MoreThe Transformational Leadership Model Of A Business Environment1426 Words   |  6 PagesThere are several different theories that can be applied to leadership. Hence, there are no right or wrong theories, purely just diverse perceptions. The trait theory of leadership believes that leaders are born and not made. This theory claims that leadership is inherited, and great leaders are born with natural leadership traits. Zaccaro, S. J. (2007) defines this as a â€Å"unique property of extraordinary individuals whose decisions are capable of someti mes radically changing the streams of history†[Pg6]

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Deceptive Commercial Speech and Advertising Free Essays

Deceptive Commercial Speech and Advertising According to the commercial speech doctrine, only deceptive speech that is considered commercial may be regulated. General deceptive speech is not commercial, may not be regulated. When deciding what may and may not be regulated, it is important to understand the subtle differences in what is considered commercial and non commercial speech. We will write a custom essay sample on Deceptive Commercial Speech and Advertising or any similar topic only for you Order Now An analyzation of false advertising would give further understanding to the notion of commercial speech and how it may be degenerative to a society when untruthful. Commercial Speech According to the Supreme Court, the definition of commercial speech is a â€Å"combination of a core notion surrounded by a penumbral boundary defined on the basis of three characteristics† (Howard, 1991). This â€Å"core notion† of commercial speech is â€Å"speech which does ‘no more than propose a commercial transaction’† [1] Beyond this notion exists a body of commercial speech identified in the Bolger v. Youngs Drug Prods. Corp. 1983 case by whether the speech is as an advertisement, whether the speech refers to a specific product, or whether the speaker is economically motivated. 2] Although individually these characteristics are insufficient to establish speech as commercial, the combination of all three offers a strong argument for describing commercial speech. Advertising The Merriam-Webster dictionary lists an advertisement as something that is shown of presented to the public to help sell a product or to make an announcement. In short adve rtising may be described as a public notice published in the press or broadcast over the air. Many societies receive a bulk of their daily information from advertisements selling physical products, attempting to sway opinions, and introducing new ideas. The increase in media technology has opened a doorway to deliver a constant stream of information including advertisements that may be biased or altogether misleading. Current social network sites allow users to â€Å"like† or â€Å"check-in† to retailers and offer their own perception of goods and services. These social networks allow for the â€Å"word of mouth† method of advertising to increase in effectiveness due to the widespread availability of technology. Development Commercial speech is typically given limited First Amendment protections; however, there exists two types of commercial speech that are exempt from any protection whatsoever. Advertising that is false, misleading, or deceptive is given no protection by the government. Advertising that show cases unlawful goods or services will also receive zero protection from the government (Pember Calvert, 2011). Doctrine The Commercial Speech Doctrine was developed to outline which protected commercial speech may be regulated. While little to no rights are granted to misleading ads or unlawful goods and services, protected commercial speech may also be subject to regulation if: there is substantial state interest to justify regulation, there is evidence that the regulation directly advances this interest, or there is reasonable fit between the state interest and the government regulation (Pember Calvert, 2011). Before a state decides to regulate commercial speech that has presumed protection under the First Amendment, that state must assert a reasonable cause for wanting to regulate the speech. For example: a billboard that is blocking the view of drivers on the street nearby would be reasonable cause for regulating that speech. The state must next prove that this regulation of speech has directly effected the interest at which it was aimed. For example: the removal of the billboard must show a decrease in traffic violations in the area. Finally, the state must show that the regulation of commercial speech has been narrowly tailored to fit a specific interest. For example: the regulation involving the removal of a billboard must be specific to that particular billboard. Following these guidelines allows for a state to regulate commercial speech that is not misleading or unlawful in goods or services. Fraud, Falsity, and Misleadingness In 1981, J. Edward Russo, Barbara L. Metcalf, and Debra Stephens identified three approaches to unjust advertising. Each view parallels the three components of advertising communication. â€Å"Fraud focuses on the advertiser and assumes a deliberate intent to create false beliefs about the product. Falsity in advertising refers to the existence of a claim-fact discrepancy. Misleadingness focuses exclusively on consumer beliefs† (Russo, Metcalf, Stephens, 1981). Advertisers who display low ethics and advertise deliberate misinformation are guilty of fraud; however, it remains an impractical approach. Proving a â€Å"deliberate intent† to mislead through an advertisement is difficult and may be irrelevant to the harm caused to consumers. Although, major industry regulator, the National Advertising Division (NAD) of the Better Business Bureau, does not generally require proof of fraud to remove an ad from publication, this does not apply in all situations (Russo, Metcalf, Stephens, 1981). Falsity in advertising occurs when a claim is made that is not documented with fact. For example: a company advertises that a product with fly, but the product does not fly. Falsity is easily verified by proving that a discrepancy exists between advertisement and reality. Insufficiency of falsity occurs when an ad generates a consumer belief of falsity, even though one has not been directly stated. Misleadingness, the third view, focuses entirely on what consumers believe. â€Å"A demonstration of misleadingness requires the observation of false consumer beliefs in conjunction with exposure to the ad† (Russo, Metcalf, Stephens, 1981). If an ad is believed to be in violation of this, it must prove that there is a direct relation between the release of the ad and change in societal belief. The Federal Trade Commission refocused its approach to misleadingness by focusing little on the actual message and more on the resulting consumer beliefs. References 1. Virginia State Bd. of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, Inc. , 425 U. S. 748, 762 (1976) (quoting Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Comm’n on Human Relations, 413 U. S. 376, 385 (1973)). Bolger v. Youngs Drug Prods. Corp. 463 U. S. 60, 66-67 (1983). Howard, A. (1991). The constitutionality of deceptive speech regulations: Replacing the commercial speech doctrine. Case Western Reserve Law Review, 41(4), 1093. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary:http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/advertisements Pember, D. R. , and Calvert, C. (2011). Mass media law. 17th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Russo, J. , Metcalf, B. L. , Stephens, D. (1981). Identifying Misleading Advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2), 119-131. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. How to cite Deceptive Commercial Speech and Advertising, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Light and photosynthetic pigments free essay sample

Artificial photosynthesis is the biological process in which sunlight is used to prepare the nutrient for the plant with the help of the green pigment, i.e, chlorophyll. However, when the sun sets there is no way that the plant can prepare their meal. It now becomes a technology which mimics the photosynthesis in nature; the use of nano-sized light-sensitive materials will be converted to light energy, resulting in oxidoreductase reaction. In short, it is a useful technology that uses light energy to produce the same chemicals as in natural process.The energy from the sunlight transforms into the chemical energy due to which it becomes more suitable for its storage. In this conversion, side products are not produced like the greenhouse gases. On the contrary, in the process carbon dioxide can be utilized in the same way as it does in plants. The chlorophyll present in the leaves captures sunlight, and a set of enzymes and other proteins uses this light to split water molecules into hydrogen, electrons, and oxygen (protons). We will write a custom essay sample on Light and photosynthetic pigments or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Electrons and hydrogen are used to convert carbon dioxide into nutrients for the plant, and oxygen is released into the atmosphere. To recreate photosynthesis in artificial conditions, two key steps are necessary: the ability to collect solar energy, and the ability to split water molecules.Experimenters first used a cobalt metal, phosphorus, and indium-tin-oxide electrode placed in water to create a new catalytic device that relies on current generated by external sources of energy (such as solar energy, wind energy, etc.) , A catalyst flowing through the electrode and consisting of cobalt and phosphoric acid, using the catalytic action of cobalt and phosphorus to cause the water to produce hydrogen and oxygen which are collected at both poles. This process is very similar to photosynthesis, especially using solar energy as a source of electricity. Hydrogen and oxygen can be used directly for combustion, pollution-free. Moreover, the energy produced by the combination of hydrogen a nd oxygen can be stored in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, enabling uninterrupted power supply both day and night. But splitting the water molecule is not so simple; it requires about two and a half electron volts of energy. Therefore, we need a catalyst that â€Å"pushes† the chemical reaction.The Artificial Leaf Project and MITs Artificial Photosynthesis Research are all devoted to solving the process of converting water to organic matter and releasing hydrogen and oxygen, creating a leaf that resembles the greenery of nature even more than it Optimized device to become a highly efficient solar energy conversion device. However, the research process is very difficult, but also very challenging. Researchers in this process have done many experiments, such as they have tried to use other raw materials as a catalyst, although it can catalyze the hydrolysis reaction, the effect is not as expected, only through multiple experiments to add other Material, can we expect catalytic efficiency can be improved. According to researches, this process consumes carbon dioxide much faster than the natu ral process

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Jahind Davis 7-4 Essays (1342 words) - Boxing, Sports, Free Essays

Jahind Davis 7-4 Essays (1342 words) - Boxing, Sports, Free Essays Jahind Davis 7-4 March 6th.2017 Muhammad Ali (1942-2016) [pic] Born to Cassius Clay Sr. and Odessa Grady Clay on January 17th , 1942, Louisville Kentucky Muhammad Ali became one of the most influential black sports figure in history. During his early childhood he endured one specific event in which, in 1953 the red & white Schwinn was stolen. He quoted that ,"I'm gonna whup whoever stole my bike. So naturally he went and reported it to fellow police officer,Joe martin. Luckily enough on it's own it had sparked an idea for Joe Martin to undergo teaching him how to box for a total of 6 years.After graduating Louisville Central High school in 1958, 376 out of 391 his compassion of boxing became even more noticeable. After that the sessions went on, and Joe had noticed his admiration for it so it had pulled more of his work ethic and determination along with his Amateur tittles. So he fought all the way to the 1960 Olympics. Where from there had shot him to the greatest match yet. His first professional match, so in October 29th,1960 he played his first match against Tunney Hunsaker So Ali's reaching of 178 cm a rather fierce intimidating figure had became a deterrent. After a egregious bloodied 6 round match Ali won in an unanimous decision. Outside the ring he was vocal about some of his views and opinions on some of the current problems facing the majority of blacks or African Americans at the time being. Albeit he didn't experience the same problems to a draconian degree that most Blacks suffered, but he found a way to do so through using his popularity. He stated that "I know i got it made while other black folks are out there catching hell, but as long as they ain't free, i ain't free." Also to embellish on this statement in 1964 he changed his name from Cassius Clay to Muhammad Ali, Muhammad meaning "The one worthy of praise." He further stated that he changed it because it was a slave name. Which of course at the time influence blacks to do things to lessen the oppression by whites at the time. Along with this he joined The NOI or Nation Of Islam, a religious following that fuses Black Nationalism and Sunni part of Islam. So on May 25,1965 Ali had won a bout to the beforehand unbeatable at the time to Sonny Liston(1930-1972), so during that match Ali had won dominantly towards the 6th round carrying on to the 7th round. So after that he had won the title of World Heavyweight Champion. Outside the ring he done something that had put everything including his career on the line. But before here is a time line of the military and him. In 1964 Ali had failed the USAF qualifying test because he wasn't versatile with reading and writing. So with the rising of the infamous Vietnam War(1959-1975),the government needed more soldiers to use for battle so test standards were lowered so more people who weren't educated which was 2.4 percent based on the NAAL (National Association of Adult Literacy) allowed for Ali to be qualified again. So in 1965 that caused for Ali to be reclassified as an 1-A in February of 1966. This casted a new status, eligiable to be drafted and an inducted into the United States Armed Forces. Of course his teachings at the NOI meetings had really taught him a lot about the world around him.. So when he was alerted by this he stood his ground and declared he wasn't going to serve in the army. He stated that he was taught by the honorable Elijah Muhammad(October 7th,1987-February 25th,1875) that,"War is against the teachings of the holy Qu'ran.I'm not trying to dodge the draft.We are not supposed to take part in no war execpt for when Allah or The messenger. We dont take part in Christian wars or any unbelievers." Also he stated in an interview that,"My concious wont let me go shoot my brother or some darker people or some poor hungry people who live in the mud for big powerful America and for what?!, They never called me a nigger or

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How to Write a Cover Letter

How to Write a Cover Letter How to Write a Cover Letter How to Write a Cover Letter By Mark Nichol Does anyone write business letters anymore? Whether or not you still employ this declining form of communication, you should be aware of the customary procedure, because the necessity may come up. This model is only one of several variations, but whichever version you employ, veer from the template only if you have a good reason to do so. (Word-processing programs generally have a business-letter template, but it’s simple enough to create a letter on your own.) Start the letter with your own address on one line, followed by the city and state (using the US Postal Service’s two-letter state symbols) and the ZIP code on the next. (It’s not necessary to include your name here.) Enter a line space, and then type the date in full for example, â€Å"November 1, 2012† (or, if you’re writing to someone outside the United States, â€Å"1 â€Å"November 2012†). A few lines below that, write the recipient’s name (preceded, if known and applicable, by a title such as Professor or Doctor or by a social title like Mr. or Ms., or a variation you know the person prefers). If you don’t know the name of the person you wish to contact, research it online or phone or e-mail the company and obtain a name. On subsequent lines, add the address and then the city and state and the ZIP code. Several lines below that, enter the salutation, which should consist of the word dear and the full name as it appears in the address section for example, â€Å"Dear Mr. Mark Nichol,† followed by a colon. If you know the recipient on a first-name basis, write simply, â€Å"Dear Mark,† followed by a colon. (If you can’t easily determine whether a person with a name used by men and women alike is male or female, or if you prefer, omit the social title or use another applicable title.) The body of the letter should be concise, beginning with a friendly introduction and a statement of the purpose of your letter. In one or more subsequent paragraphs, expand on your main point and supporting details, then close with a summary of your intent in writing and a request for action from the recipient or a reference to action you or another party will undertake that the recipient should expect or be aware of. Separate each pair of paragraphs by a line space (or a double space), and use single-space lines and left-aligned, or ragged-right, justification. (A left-aligned block of type has a straight left margin and a right margin that varies depending on the length of the words in each line, hence the alternative name.) Margins should be set about one inch from the left edge of the paper and should be no wider than six or six and a half inches. Also, because you’re inserting line spaces between paragraphs, it’s not necessary to indent the first lines. The closing (â€Å"thank you,† or, as informal alternative, â€Å"thanks† in either case, the first letter should be capitalized) should be followed by a comma, then leave several line spaces between that and your typed name (which is optional) to allow you to handwrite your signature. If you are including one or more enclosures, type the initial-capped singular or plural form of that word (or the abbreviation Encl.) so that the recipient knows that he or she should find additional materials in the envelope with the letter. You might also want to list the specific enclosures so that the recipient will be certain that he or she has received all of them. Times New Roman in 12-point type is the standard font, though other easy-to-read fonts are acceptable. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Business Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Spelling Test 1What is the Difference Between Metaphor and Simile?One "L" or Two?

Sunday, February 16, 2020

No need for topic Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

No need for topic - Assignment Example This will make the currency appreciate because there are more local currency than foreign currency especially if there is no trade surplus. It will now take more local currency to buy the same amount of foreign money making foreign exchange rate to appreciate. Inflation meant that it now takes more money to buy certain goods and services. It also meant more money circulating in a given economy. Being such, it will take more money to buy same amount of foreign currency making the exchange rate to appreciate. Tax breaks given to business to encourage capital expenditures meant businesses will be buying more equipment. If the equipment is bought locally, foreign exchange will depreciate because there will be less need for it. If such equipment will be bought abroad through imports, then foreign exchange rate will appreciate. Good stock market performance will encourage more investment and more demand for the local currency. This will make the foreign exchange rate to depreciate while the dollar to appreciate. This is because foreign money would need more dollars to be able to invest in the stock market. Government intervention in the capital market will make foreign exchange rate to appreciate and the dollar to depreciate. This is typically done to make the imports competitive by making it cheaper. To make this happen, central banks will put more dollars in the system to depreciate the dollar. Monetary growth or the strengthening of economy through high exports will make the local currency to appreciate. It is because there are more foreign money coming in through trade. It has the effect of converting local currency into greater value through export or trade. Increase in GNP and real economic growth will make the local currency stronger. It will be able to buy more goods. It will have the effect of depreciating foreign exchange rate because of its stronger purchasing power. Forward premiums is a situation of trading